How “Yeshua” Became “Jesus”

The first letter in the name Yeshua (“Jesus”) is the yod. Yod represents the “Y” sound in Hebrew. Many names in the Bible that begin with yod are mispronounced by English speakers because the yod in these names was transliterated in English Bibles with the letter “J” rather than “Y”. This came about because in early English the letter “J” was pronounced the way we pronounce “Y” today. All proper names in the Old Testament were transliterated into English according to their Hebrew pronunciation, but when English pronunciation shifted to what we know today, these transliterations were not altered. Thus, such Hebrew place names as ye-ru-sha-LA-yim, ye-ri-HO, and yar-DEN have become known to us as Jerusalem, Jericho, and Jordan; and Hebrew personal names such as yo-NA, yi-SHAI, and ye-SHU-a have become known to us as Jonah, Jesse, and Jesus.

The yod is the smallest letter of the alphabet, which is why Yeshua used it in His famous saying in Matt 5:18: “Until heaven and earth pass away not one yod (“iota” in the Greek text) or one kots will pass from the Torah.” For emphasis, Yeshua incorporated in this saying a well-known Hebrew expression: lo’ yod ve-LO’ ko-TSO shel yod, “not a yod and not a ‘thorn’ of a yod,” i.e., not the most insignificant and unimportant thing. When Yeshua declared that heaven and earth might sooner disappear than the smallest letter of the Hebrew alphabet, or the smallest stroke of a letter, He was simply saying that the Torah (“Law” or “Teaching”) of Moses would never cease to be.

The second sound in Yeshua’s name is called tse-RE, and is pronounced almost like the letter “e” in the word “net”. Just as the “Y” sound of the first letter is mispronounced in today’s English, so too the first vowel sound in “Jesus”. Before the Hebrew name “Yeshua” was transliterated into English, it was first transliterated into Greek. There was no difficulty in transliterating the tse-RE sound since the ancient Greek language had an equivalent letter which represented this sound. And there was no real difficulty in transcribing this same first vowel into English. The translators of the earliest versions of the English Bible transliterated the tse-RE in Yeshua with an “e”. Unfortunately, later English speakers guessed wrongly that this “e” should be pronounced as in “me,” and thus the first syllable of the English version of Yeshua came to be pronounced “Jee” instead of “Yeh”. It is this pronunciation which produced such euphemistic profanities as “Gee” and “Geez”.

Since Yeshua is spelled “Jeshua” and not “Jesus” in most English versions of the Old Testament (for example in Ezra 2:2 and 2 Chronicles 31:15), one easily gets the impression that the name is never mentioned in the Hebrew Scriptures. Yet ‘Yeshua’ appears there twenty-nine times, and is the name of at least five different persons and one village in the southern part of Yehudah (“Judah”).

In contrast to the early biblical period, there were relatively few different names in use among the Jewish population of the Land of Israel at the time of the Second Temple. The name Yeshua was one of the most common male names in that period, tied with Eleazer for fifth place behind Simon, Joseph, Judah, and John. Nearly one out of ten persons known from the period was named Yeshua.

The first sound of the second syllable of Yeshua is the “sh” sound. It is represented by the Hebrew letter shin. However Greek, like many other languages, has no “sh” sound. Instead, the closest approximation, the Greek sigma, was used when transcribing “Yeshua” as “Iesus”. Translators of English versions of the New Testament transliterated the Greek transcription of a Hebrew name, instead of returning to the original Hebrew. This was doubly unfortunate, first because the “sh” sound exists in English, and second because in English the “s” sound can shift to the “z” sound, which is what happened in the case of the pronunciation of “Jesus”.

The fourth sound one hears in the name Yeshua is the “u” sound, as in the word “true”. Like the first three sounds, this also has come to be mispronounced but in this case it is not the fault of the translators. They transcribed this sound accurately, but English is not a phonetic language and “u” can be pronounced in more than one way. At some point the “u” in “Jesus” came to be pronounced as in “cut,” and so we say “Jee-zuhs.”

The “a” sound, as in the word “father,” is the fifth sound in Jesus’ name. It is followed by a guttural produced by contracting the lower throat muscles and retracting the tongue root- an unfamiliar task for English speakers. In an exception to the rule, the vowel sound “a” associated with the last letter “ayin” (the guttural) is pronounced before it, not after. While there is no equivalent in English or any other Indo-European language, it is somewhat similar to the last sound in the name of the composer, “Bach.” In this position it is almost inaudible to the western ear. Some Israelis pronounce this last sound and some don’t, depending on what part of the dispersion their families returned from. The Hebrew Language Academy, guardian of the purity of the language, has ruled that it should be sounded, and Israeli radio and television announcers are required to pronounce it correctly. There was no letter to represent them, and so these fifth and sixth sounds were dropped from the Greek transcription of “Yeshua,” -the transcription from which the English “Jesus” is derived.

So where did the final “s” of “Jesus” come from? Masculine names in Greek ordinarily end with a consonant, usually with an “s” sound, and less frequently with an “n” or “r” sound. In the case of “Iesus,” the Greeks added a sigma, the “s” sound, to close the word. The same is true for the names Nicodemus, Judas, Lazarus, and others.

English speakers make one further change from the original pronunciation of Jesus’ name. English places the accent on “Je,” rather than on “sus.” For this reason, the “u” has shortened in its English pronunciation to “uh.”

In the West, a child’s name is often chosen for its pleasant sound, or because another family member had it. The Jews of the Second Temple period also named after relatives (Luke 1:59-63). However, almost all Jewish names have a literal meaning. Occasionally this is seen in English names too, such as Scott (a person from Scotland), Johnson (son of John), and Baker (bread maker). But with Hebrew names it is the rule, rather than the exception.

The name Yeshua means The LORD’s Salvation, or Cry Out to the LORD for Help. It is the short version of Yehoshua, literally “YHWH saves (or turns) us”. In comparison, prior to being transliterated from the Hebrew Bible, the name Ἰησοῦς (Iesous) did not exist in Greek. Through multiple translations and changes in pronunciation, a tradition of saying “Jesus” has obscured His name, “Yeshua.” It has shifted His perceived message and identity from Hebrew to Greek.

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Dreadnoughtus schrani

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Titanosaur Argentinosaurus

 ( Regarding the 1st earth age Genesis 1: 1-2 Only .  Not the second age ( Genesis 1:2- )  to which Biblical and current events belong ) .14177_576422359128802_2831111347811811780_nJob 40:15-24King James Version (KJV)

15 Behold now behemoth, which I made with thee; he eateth grass as an ox.

16 Lo now, his strength is in his loins, and his force is in the navel of his belly.

17 He moveth his tail like a cedar: the sinews of his stones are wrapped together.

18 His bones are as strong pieces of brass; his bones are like bars of iron.

19 He is the chief of the ways of God: he that made him can make his sword to approach unto him.

20 Surely the mountains bring him forth food, where all the beasts of the field play.

21 He lieth under the shady trees, in the covert of the reed, and fens.

22 The shady trees cover him with their shadow; the willows of the brook compass him about.

23 Behold, he drinketh up a river, and hasteth not: he trusteth that he can draw up Jordan into his mouth.

24 He taketh it with his eyes: his nose pierceth through snares.

Handout picture released on May 17, 2014 by the Egidio Feruglio Paleontological Museum showing a technician next to a dinosaur fossile — likely to be the largest ever to roam the earth– in Chubut, some 1,300 kilometers (800 miles) south of Buenos Aires. Paleontologists in Argentina’s remote Patagonia region have discovered fossils of a creature is believed to be a new species of Titanosaur, a long-necked, long-tailed sauropod that walked on four legs and lived some 95 million years ago in the Cretaceous Period. AFP PHOTO / Museo Egidio Feruglio RESTRICTED TO EDITORIAL USE – MANDATORY CREDIT “AFP PHOTO / Museo Egidio Feruglio” – NO MARKETING NO ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS – DISTRIBUTED AS A SERVICE TO CLIENTS


Search also : Dreadnoughtus for a different species .

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8 Ways California’s Deal to Raise the Minimum Wage to $15 an Hour Could Backfire

8 Ways California’s Deal to Raise the Minimum Wage to $15 an Hour Could Backfire

A higher minimum wage only tells part of the story of what could happen to California’s economy if this deal becomes a law.


After being discussed for years, a deal that would eventually boost California’s minimum wage to $15 per hour, more than double that of the federal minimum wage of $7.25 an hour, has been reached between California’s state legislators and its labor unions.

As The Los Angeles Times reported last weekend, although the deal has yet to be finalized in the states’ legislature, lawmakers are attempting to push through the drastic minimum-wage increase without it having to go to ballot. However, this does not mean a ballot initiative or two is out of the question come November.

The proposed deal would look to push the minimum wage from an already nation-high (for an entire state) $10 an hour to $10.50 by 2017 and $11 by 2018. Thereafter, wages would increase by $1 an hour each year until 2022, when they reach $15 an hour. The deal is structured in such a way as to allow smaller businesses with less than 25 employees an extra year to comply. Though we’ve seen $15-an-hour minimum-wage laws pass in big cities such as Seattle, we’ve yet to see an entire state (let alone the biggest economy by far in the United States) take that pledge.


Why the $15-per-hour minimum-wage movement is gaining steam
The push for higher wages is pretty easy to understand. The U.S. Census Bureau in 2014 announced that the U.S. poverty rate was 14.8%, or, in simpler terms, about 46.7 million people were living in poverty. The federal government defined a person to be in poverty in 2014 if that person earned less than $11,670 in annual income. Raising the minimum wage is all about allowing the working-class American the ability to earn a “living wage,” or enough income that they can safely cover basic-needs expenses, such as rent, electricity, and food.

Based on California’s current $10-an-hour wage, the average full-time worker is bringing home about $20,800 per year. Moving this to $15 an hour should push annual income up over $31,000. This added income is expected to help cover those basic-need expenses, as well as work its way back into the economy vis-a-vis consumer spending.

Additionally, the hike in wages could help boost worker morale, which in turn can be a positive for businesses in general. We’ve all heard the phrase that “a happy worker is a productive worker,” but a study from economists at the University of Warwick in 2015 actually found that happy workers were 12% more productive than workers who weren’t happy. In other words, extra pay could have its rewards for California-based businesses.

Eight ways California’s minimum wage deal could backfire
Yet for each positive that could come about from a higher minimum wage, there appear to be a mountain of negatives that could be considerably worse. It’s very difficult to say what a minimum-wage increase of this magnitude will do, mainly because it’s going to take many years to be fully implemented, but here are eight ways that California’s $15-an-hour minimum wage could actually backfire in a big way.

1. Hours or jobs could be lost
The most front-and-center concern with raising the minimum wage is that businesses may look to reduce the hours their staff works, or will simply give some of their employees pink slips, if labor costs rise by an additional 50% from where they are now.

Layoffs Pixabay


In an interview with CBS’s Sacramento affiliate in December, Dave Leatherby, owner of family-owned ice cream shop Leatherby’s, noted at the time that he may have to let up to 30% of his staff go based on the hourly wage increase from $10 to $12.50 an hour by 2020 in Sacramento (this was before the latest deal announcement). You can imagine what might happen now with the entire state on the precipice of a $15-an-hour wage.

2. Job opportunities could be scant
On one hand, a higher working wage would probably improve workers’ loyalty to their job, which in some lights businesses can view positively. It may mean that workers take more pride in their job.

However, for those unlucky enough to be laid off, who quit, or who are simply unemployed and looking for a job when a minimum-wage hike is enacted, finding a new job might be extremely difficult. If businesses do indeed cut their workforce to reduce expenditures, there are probably going to be more people competing for fewer jobs. We could be talking about extended periods of unemployment for these individuals, and a greater strain on California’s income security programs (i.e., unemployment income and nutritional programs).

3. Worker benefits may be cut
The intangible benefits that workers receive could wind up on the chopping block if minimum-wage hikes are enacted.



For example, imagine working in San Francisco, an area notoriously difficult to find parking, and having your employer comp part or all of your parking fees each month. If your hourly wage increases by 50%, maybe your employer no longer feels the need to provide a subsidy for parking or transportation costs. We could also see employers pulling back on 401(k) matching contributions, or even pushing employees down below a 30-hour average work week so health insurance coverage is no longer a requirement. These intangible factors are part of workers’ wages, and they may be reduced or disappear entirely with a $15-an-hour minimum wage.

4. Businesses may look elsewhere
No deep explanation needed here: if businesses are faced with the prospect of opening up shop in a state with a $15 minimum wage, they may just consider looking elsewhere to do business.

In 2012, California collected almost $8 billion in corporate net income taxes. Comparatively, it brought in $112.4 billion in total tax revenue that year. While I wouldn’t count on a plunge in corporate tax income, it’s possible we could see this $8 billion figure stagnate or drop as businesses, large and small, open up shop in other states to avoid California’s high minimum hourly wage.

5. Tenured worker pay has to go up as well
An often overlooked component of the minimum-wage increases is that other employees who aren’t making minimum wage will almost assuredly have their wages rise by a corresponding amount, too.



Think about this for a moment: If person A is a new hire to your company and person B has been there for seven years and is making $12.50 an hour, when the full minimum-wage law takes effect Person A and Person B will be making the same amount of money per hour. Does that seem reasonable? Not if your business wants to retain the talent and loyalty that the tenured employee brings to the table. This means tenured employees and managers are probably going to see commensurate increases in their pay as well, further boosting the real cost of a minimum-wage hike.

6. The process of rewarding skill for pay would be disrupted
Another potential overlooked problem is that it turns the process of rewarding skill for pay on its head. In theory, people who have more skills, either through years of experience or years of schooling, should be paid more than those without desired skill sets. Even now this doesn’t always hold true, but it tends to hold true more often than not. Data from Pew Research Center in February 2014 showed that millennials ages 25 to 32 with a four-year college degree or higher earn about $17,500 more per year (in 2012 dollars) than same-age workers who just have a high school diploma. This is skill-for-pay in action.

However, automatically rewarding workers with a $15-an-hour wage right out of the gate could diminish minimum wage workers’ drive to learn valuable and in-demand skill sets. In a way, it also means businesses could be spending more on lower-skill workers when, in theory, retaining top-skilled talent is where businesses could see the biggest boost in long-term profitability.

Costs Pixabay


7. The price for goods and services might soar
An option for businesses might be to simply pass along higher wage costs to the consumer if wages rises to $15 an hour. Fox News in July reported on a few of the unintended consequences of Seattle’s $15 minimum-wage law, which include having some restaurants increase their prices by as much as 15%, and having some managers at restaurants discourage tipping since their servers are now earning more. What this is doing is reducing income for servers who are reliant on tips and allowing back-of-house workers such as dishwashers to earn a higher wage than servers.

But it’s more than just paying more when going out to eat. The price for rent, public transportation, parking, and so on could all shoot dramatically higher in step with the minimum-wage increases. It’s possible that high levels of inflation could completely counteract the minimum-wage increase in a matter of years.

8. Innovation could suffer
Finally, as was touched on above, a $15 minimum wage could discourage socioeconomic advancement. If a minimum-wage worker lands a full-time job that can pay around $31,000 a year full-time, his or her drive to learn new skills and advance even further may be tempered. This may wind up counteracting the loyalty and productivity boost workers are expected to bring to the table from receiving a considerably higher minimum wage.

It’s still far too early to tell if a $15 minimum wage is bad news for California’s economy, but the data would appear to suggest that there are considerably more paths to disappointment than success. This deal could wind up backfiring badly on California-based businesses and the states’ minimum-wage workers

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Hezekiah king of Judah –baruch-bulla–baruch-bulla-education-presentation-BGyLeZkP9i#slide-16 ?

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Numbers 6:26

The Lord lift up his countenance upon thee, and give thee peace.

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Jehoiakim king of Judah .( Nebuchadnezzar’s captivity )

By Scallaham

By Scallaham

Jehoiachin’s rations tablets date from the 6th century BC and describe the rations set aside for a royal captive identified with Jeconiah, king of Judah.[2][3] Tablets from the royal archives of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon were unearthed in the ruins of Babylon that contain food rations paid to captives and craftsmen who lived in and around the city. On one of the tablets, “Ya’u-kīnu, king of the land of Yahudu” is mentioned along with his five sons listed as royal princes.[4

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